The southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole

Blue compass needle always points north, so if you go in the opposite direction for a long time until the arrow will not show straight up, get back to where the southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole.
This was not so in our planet, there are several South Pole.
The southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole
Definition
The word “pole” refers to the marginal marginal, extreme point of any surface or do something, and the diametrical opposite – in this case a fresh concept in our world there are only two poles, more or less is, perhaps, worlds with different notions of space.

On our planet there are geographic poles – north and south (the southernmost point of the planet), which are located where the planet’s axis of rotation intersects its surface at two points. As any extremes, the poles of several unprofitable, these points with geographic coordinates are latitude only, respectively, at the poles no time zones – choose any.
And their own, special poles are in the cold and inaccessibility, and even their name is uncomfortable.
Magnetic poles
In the Earth’s magnetic field is generated by the planet’s core, consisting of molten rock, including metal. Like any electromagnetic radiation, it has the power lines that show the direction of the radiation. These lines are forced to deviate compass that always located along those lines, strictly in one direction. The points of convergence of these lines are called magnetic poles – north and south, and they are not the same drift and geographical. They are not opposites, ie the magnetic axis of the Earth, which connects the magnetic poles, which passes through the center of the world.

The southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole
Incidentally, the south magnetic pole attracts the south pole of the compass, and since opposite charges attract, it is correct to call the North.
Geographical location
The point on the earth’s surface that has coordinates 9000 ’00’ south latitude – South Pole – the southernmost point of the planet. Poles got the most stringent in the climatic zone of the planet. North is the ice of the Arctic Ocean, is among the ocean, located between huge areas of land . South – to Antarctica, that solid plot, bordered on all sides by oceans.
At the poles, the sun rises every year, reaching the highest point in six months sits on the horizon. In Antarctica day begins 22 September, lasts 178 days and ends in March.
Climate
Despite the “hot” name, the South Pole – the extreme southern point of the world – one of the living conditions —ćkstremalneyshyh places. It is located on the continent, covered with a thick layer of ice and sunbathe there is problematic – the climate at the South Pole is colder than the North. It turns out that it is far from the coast and the ocean – a natural teploakumulyator. Its location is on a hill, and liquid sunlight reaching the surface appear white snow.
The southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole Near the pole, the station Amundsen Scott (USA) temperature -828 noted that only 7 warmer record low registered in the Russian station “Vostok”, located on the continent.

Conquest of the South Pole
After the American Peary Arctic expedition, when in 1909 opened the North Pole, the main purpose of pioneers became the southernmost point of the planet. The history of the conquest of the South Pole was one of the last pages of the world history of geographical discoveries, and one of the most dramatic.
In the race involved two teams: Norwegian led by the legendary polar explorer Amundsen and British Rualdom under the command of Robert Scott. Later in England spread a description of these expeditions, designed to trifles, devoid of the slightest risk of cold command, sensible Norwegian romantic and heroic impulse-Englishman. Amundsen particularly charged that fifty huskies, which moved his team, as we move to pole became a source of food for dogs and people.

January 17, 1912 Norwegians reached the pole, ahead of Scott month. The southernmost point of the world was on the base at a distance of 1300 km, Amundsen reached the Pole, two months after the expedition safely returned, spending way less than 10 days. 5 people under the command of Scott with great difficulty got to the goal there found that Amundsen beat them. They were found dead from exhaustion just six months.
The current state
In Antarctica, no territorial division is limited to research activities carried out under international treaty. The South Pole is an American research station named after the discoverers – Amundsen and Scott, about her ritual equipped place for photography – the southernmost point of the planet. It is a special sign on a stand surrounded by flags of countries participating in the development of Antarctica.
The southernmost point of our planet – the South Pole
Each year the mark due to the shift of the ice shell on the southern continents deviates from zero longitude of ten meters, and it has to move. Fortunately, every time the southernmost point of land called without the effort that has been spent heroes of science in the early XX century. Now the pole is a webcam, and a visit is included in the list of tourist destinations.

What nationality: Quest definition

In Soviet aesthetics and philosophy of history there is such a term as a nation. This is not an unambiguous word that needs clarification and definition. The fact that a nation and a developed understanding of the term in academia, are discussed below.
What nationality: Quest definition
The first mention
It is the first time the term “nation” was taken in the letter P. Vyazemsky, which he wrote while in Warsaw, Alexander Turgenev. The yard was then 1819. Since then, the debate about what a nation, not abated. First of all, this applies to history but also strongly affected literature and other areas of human activity and science. In 1832 there is the famous formula of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality”. It happened with a light hand Uvarov, who admitted that interest in us word one of the main categories of philosophy.

Socialist realism
As an ideological concept, both endowed with aesthetic features, the term entered into the formula of socialist realism. It sounded like this: “ideology, party affiliation, nationality.” But this was much later, and this we will say below. In general As for the mid-nineteenth century thinkers attempted to answer the question of what a nation, determination often found in national categories. Thus, the concept of “nation” and “nationality” is often seen as synonymous and interchangeable.
What nationality: Quest definition
Polish tradition
But apart from the above, there were other interpretations both within Russia and abroad. So, tune Polish narodowo’s’c term was used in two ideological values. The first was designed in the spirit of the Enlightenment and involved oblychchyastist nation-state. The second was associated more with romanticism and included the concept oblychchyastosti people culture.

Russian alternative
In Russia too there, though rare, alternative answers to the question: “What is a nation?” For example, the term can be understood as the embodiment of the common people, as oblychchyastist people from the lower classes, in contrast to the nobility and intellectuals educated in mainstream Western culture.
Further development to the revolution
Gradually, the definition of what nationality, was more nationalistic and even take shovynystskuyu color. If the mid-nineteenth century and later this term could still be understood as determining original culture without reference to nationality, in the years immediately preceding the coup of 1917, under the influence of positivism use of the word has been deprecated and backwardness . And in the mind it is more closely identified with nationalist ideas.

The Soviet period
What nation in the history of the Soviet Union, can not say for sure, because the meaning of the word several times radically transformed the Soviet ideology. Originally from it completely disown would like vestige of monarchism. The term has become topical again after 1934, when the Bolsheviks XVII Congress was declared the end of the class struggle and the category of “class” gave a more general – “Soviet people”. Accordingly, instead klasovosti began to talk about nationality. By the end of the 30s the word firmly established in Soviet life and became so powerful ideological meaning that any attempt to deny or reject it perceived as anti-Soviet activity. On the other hand, there was no clear definition, allowing specify that a nationality. In literature, for example, noted among other things that writers such as Pushkin and Tolstoy, “made people” and it was an expression of nationality. Someone said that writers express their nationality contrary klasovosti. Still others believed that this word lies a fundamental democracy. Again sounded notes of determination of nationalism. For example, to find out what the nations and nationalities, trying G. Pospelov. He wrote that this term should be understood as “objective national progressive content.” Another version of the definition is based on an attempt to nationality and identification of partisanship. But more and after Stalin, the clearer it becomes awareness in the USSR is its national identity in relation to nationality.

What nationality: Quest definition
Russia in the post-Soviet period
Category nation was perceived and thinkers of the post-Soviet period. But, as in Soviet times, among them there is no unanimity. On the one hand, the nation tied with Orthodoxy, trying to revive the values of the famous formula, wanting to restore the monarchy. On the other – the nation is closely linked to national identity, holding between them the equal sign. These two trends are similar in one, namely that they postulate advantage of society, the staff of oblychchyastistyu over individuality. This relic is equally as Soviet and imperial order, and to this day it is neyzzhytym.
What nationality: Quest definition
N. Lysenko was felt that a more objective explanation of what the nation will be given in the future, as the term is certainly remain as mental category and part of the future, which only begins to form the ideology of the state. Today, in his opinion, can and should be limited to only highly conditional and vague definition of nationality as obscherusskosty. Still, mainstream is intuitive relationship nationalities, in which collectivist “we” prevails over the individual “I”.